Handling Dead Snakes

“My father brought the head of a rattlesnake to our classroom one time,” a student once told us. Not knowing why this father presented a venomous snake head to an elementary classroom, we cringed at the thought because a dead rattlesnake can still envenomate a victim.

Dead Snakes

“If you find a dead snake,” says the American College of Medical Toxicology, “do not come into contact with the snake’s mouth, because dead snakes can still deliver venom through their fangs. Even a severed head of a snake still has the ability to inject venom when it is touched.”

The chemical makeup of venom does not change after the snake is dead and can last quite a while. “Never handle a venomous reptile, even after it’s dead,” says Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center. “Reflex strikes with injected venom can occur for several hours after death.”

Bitten by a Rattlesnake

A friend of ours was once bitten by a rattlesnake in her front yard at night as she walked the brushy area toward her mailbox. When police arrived on the scene, they captured the snake, cut off its head, and threw the head into the garbage can. During the ambulance ride to the hospital, an attendant observed the body of the snake writhing in the pail where it had been placed. “Is it still alive?” she asked. Our friend peered into the bucket and confirmed that the body of the snake was headless. Reflex action left the snake writhing for several hours after its death.

What about the Head?

But what about the head? If someone had reached into the garbage can to remove an item and in the process come into contact with the head, he or she could have come into contact with the fangs, either through reflex action or by being grazed by a fang.

“It is a known fact,” says rattlesnake researcher Bryon Shipley, “that one of the intriguing physiological oddities about low metabolism animals, such as snakes and other reptiles, is the slowness of the death of tissues such as nerves and brain cells.” Apparently, according to Bryon, decapitation does not result in the death of the brain which may remain capable of controlling eye movement, jaw movement, venom gland compression, and even tongue flicking for an hour.

Decapitation as a method of euthanasia is not recommended without the concurrent destruction of the brain as well. “There is an old saying,” says Bryon, “that ‘rattlesnakes never die until sundown.’ Which exemplifies the slow process of death and the danger of envenomation due to nerve reflex impulses.”

Good Snake or Bad Snake?

Perhaps the father who brought the rattlesnake head to his son’s classroom thought, as many others think, that “the only good snake is a dead snake.” While we consider rattlesnakes and other snakes to be neither “good” nor “bad,” we realize their value in the ecosystem, as well as their value to the medical community where venom is studied to help cancer, heart, and diabetic patients. And a live rattlesnake has the ability to control the amount, if any, venom that they deliver.

The father, then, might discover some day that the only “good” rattlesnake is a “live” rattlesnake!

35 thoughts on “Handling Dead Snakes”

  1. Betty: You write soo well..I surely enjoy your articles. Looks like you’ll be celebrating 50 yrs of marriage in 2018… let me be the first to send congratulations !! Thanks for the information about the creatures we like and dislike at the same time…they have a purpose just as we do..♥️

    • Bruce,
      The safest way to handle a dead venomous snake is with a tool that keeps the snake at arm’s length and out of the range of delivering a bite to yourself. Most people who are bitten by a snake are trying to kill, hurt, or improperly handle that animal. As for handling the head of a dead venomous snake, a shovel or other yard implement would prevent envenomation. Sometimes a “dead” snake will continue to spasm for over an hour due to nervous reactions. If you are within range of the fangs and even receive a slight scratch you could be receiving a dose of venom. When in the field studying snakes, I carry tongs and reptile hooks to move the snakes in such a manner that neither the snake nor the human gets hurt.

    • Thru the years, I’ve always handled dead snakes/parts as I would handle a live specimen. There’s always the possibility that there could be some crystallized venom in the fang passage which could still be a hazard. What I would do would be to handle the head with some sort of tongs or even pliers to avoid any contact with my body. That’s why we always caution folks to not kill or handle dead snakes. Most people who are bitten are trying to kill or harm the snake, and even dead snakes, through nervous action, can still bite a person. Thanks for your question. It is a valid concern!

  2. Hi there. I really enjoyed reading this article. I did know that dead snakes were still dangerous. I do have a question about a buried venomous snake though that I thought you may know the answer to. I live in Queensland, Australia and have just buried a dead Eastern Brown Snake I found in our front yard. (It was dead when I found it from a wound of some sort, possibly dog bite) My kids are interested in possibly digging it up in 12 months or more to check out it’s skeleton. Is it likely to still be dangerous, even once it’s a skeleton?

    • Good question, Jody! Although after having been buried for a year, the skeleton would present no real danger, but the fangs which will now be totally exposed could still present a danger and would be best left alone. The fangs will still be needle sharp and may contain some crystallized venom which could still prove dangerous if the human skin was scratched or punctured. The Eastern Brown is in the elapid group which include the cobras, so the venom is very toxic. Also, with your tropical climate, I’m not sure how much will be left of the skeleton after going thru a rainy period. Bottom line is to be very careful and definitely avoid the head area. There’s also a chance that some scavenger may beat your kids to the dead snake before they start digging. Good luck & BE CAREFUL!

      • Thank you so much for your wisdom and knowledge, Chuck. It’s greatly appreciated. I did happen to do a bit more research myself after reading your article and posting this question and had already decided that we will leave our snake to rest in peace. Perhaps we’ll come across a dead carpet python in the future that we can bury and later dig up to check out it’s skeleton – a snake that isn’t the second most venomous snake in the world! Again, your knowledge has been greatly appreciated and hopefully your answer, and our question, will help other young “scientists” in their quest for knowledge and exploration. Many, many thanks!

    • Not the skin, just the venom. The skin, however can carry salmonella as well as other bacteria and even parasites. Thanks for a good question!

  3. I live in the Northern California foothills where rattlesnakes are quite common. What is the best way to dispose of a dead rattlesnake? If it is buried does the crystallized venom in the fangs last indefinitely? Some people have recommended placing it in the trash.

    • The Northern Pacific rattler does have a potent venom so care should be exercised around them alive or dead. Not sure how long the crystallized venom remains deadly, but it’s best to err on the safest way of approaching. Obviously if the snake is long dead, it could be moved by hand, keeping away from the head. A recently deceased snake is capable of envenomating from nerve spasms for an extended period of time. A lot depends on exactly where the dead snake is located. If it’s near a residence frequented by children or pets, I would move it with a shovel and bury it a couple feet below the surface to prevent scavengers from contacting it. If it’s in a forested or wilderness area, I’d be inclined to let it alone. Putting it into trash would pose a deadly threat to the unknowing person who collects and processes the trash, a dangerous action.
      Thanks for your comments.

  4. I live on a rural property on the Western edge of Sydney, Australia. Yesterday I killed a young Eastern Brown snake about 10 metres from my door, in my vegetable garden. If it hadn’t been close to the house and gardens I would have left it alone, but was worried about my grandchildren coming into contact with it. I buried the snake and its decapitated head in the vegie garden and now am worried that the venom might contaminate the soil and make a future crop toxic. Is this likely? Should I dig it up and try and remove the head to another spot to bury? I am also wondering where its parents might be. Do they live in groups or in isolation?

    • Hello, Caroline,
      It’s good hearing from a reader from a country that has the highest number of venomous snakes on the planet! And, you can’t be faulted for your actions regarding the Eastern Brown snake, the second most venomous snake in OZ, right behind the Inland Taipan in toxicity. I applaud your reluctance in killing the snake and can understand your motivation because of your grandchildren. That snake is responsible for most of the venomous bites each year in NSW. As for contamination of the garden’s soil, I would seriously doubt that the relatively small amount of venom in the head would be of any concern. In fact, some people worldwide will actually drink snake venom with no ill effects. It’s when the venom gets into the bloodstream through an open sore in the mouth or cavity in a tooth that could cause a fatal event. I definitely don’t recommend such behavior and the folks who insist on such activity are courting disaster. Whatever venom may be present in the dead snake will be most likely broken down and diluted by soil absorption or rainfall or irrigation in the garden. I would also suggest that you don’t dig up the skull because of the risk associated with perhaps contacting the small fangs which could still inject some venom into your body. Probably in a year or so, the skull could be totally dissolved by the elements but definitely try to avoid any digging or planting around the site of the burial. Many people who get bitten are trying to kill or molest the snake and I’m glad that you were safe during that encounter. With the exception of newly born or hatched snakes, most species are solitary and only come together for breeding so you won’t see its parents although since you are in a rural area, there could be some more related or un-related snakes nearby. Always keep your eyes open and watch where your put your hands and feet as well.
      Thanks for sending me a great question. While I was visiting Australia years ago I didn’t see a single snake…and I was looking for them!
      Another good source to contact would be the Australia Herpetological Society at AHS.ORG.au. They have to be the primary experts in NSW and may have some information that I may have omitted.

      Thanks again and take care!

      Chuck Mulcahy

      • Dear Chuck,
        Thank you so much for your detailed and speedy reply. You have put my mind at rest. I spent a very sleepless night worrying about having buried the head in the garden, and whether my next crops would be safe; hence my hours on Google and finding your site in the middle of the night.
        I’m surprised you didn’t see any snakes on your visit here – did you spend much time in the country or bush? I have had many encounters with them over the years and could regale you with some great snake stories, having lived most of my life in the country and outback NSW. I even killed a young one with my bread board one night when I went to the kitchen for a drink of water. Luckily I had turned on the light or I might have stepped on it. It was lying in front of the fridge. I grabbed the bread board and slammed it down hard end-on on the snake’s back.
        The scariest was when our cattle dog attacked a huge 2 metre long Eastern Brown and they were embroiled in a fight to the death. Our kids were screaming and had seen the whole thing. When my husband and I arrived both the dog and the snake were lying severely wounded and dying. The dog’s eyes had rolled back and only the whites showing and his little body was rigid. My husband finished off the snake while I rang the vet to find out what to do for the dog. He told me there was nothing I could do and he would be dead before I could get him there. My husband then asked him what action did the venom have, and being a herbalist raced inside and made up a herbal concoction which we administered with a syringe. The children and I massaged the dog’s chest to keep his heart beating and frantically prayed for him. We kept injecting large doses of the herbal mix down his throat. Four hours later he was up and running around as if nothing had happened.
        Anyway I guess no-one wants to read all my snake stories, and I might scare people from visiting this beautiful country, so I’ll stop there. At least we don’t have wild bears, wolves, coyotes, mountain lions or other big things that eat you!
        Thanks again for your great answers to my questions and giving me peace of mind.

  5. My grandfather found a rattle snake head in a Jar, and managed to take out the fangs, we want’s to make a necklace from one of them, is there any way to clean it and make sure there is no venom or should it just not be done?
    thank you-Remington

    • Hello Remington,

      Good question. On any venomous snake’s fangs, even though from a dead specimen, there’s always a chance of some crystallized venom in the canal of the fang. So if someone were to be punctured by that fang, the danger would still exist of doing damage to his health. In attempting to clean the fang with some sort of soap or bleach, the fang, being very fragile would most likely be made even more brittle and could actually fall apart or totally dissolve, so that’s not really an option. I’d recommend against that procedure. But the fang could be mounted in a plastic box with a black background making it more visible. That way it would remain intact for a long time and be more educational. And, the fang isn’t really that large and trying to use it for a necklace would almost certainly cause its destruction.
      I hope that answers your question. Thanks for writing! Chuck

    • Good question! From what I have heard and learned over the years, it appears that the venom(poison) is every bit as dangerous whether snake is alive or dead. The difference is that when the snake is alive, it has the capability to inject that venom more deeply into the body’s tissue. A dead snake, if handled could produce perhaps a scratch in your skin which would allow some of the dried venom to enter your bloodstream, a dangerous event. And, if the snake is recently dead, it could actually bite hard enough (through nervous reaction) to deliver the venom similar to a bite of a living snake. I’ve always recommended keeping a safe distance from a snake, dead or alive. Thank you for that question!

  6. Last night I killed a Diamondback rattler by a swing set with a shovel. I cut off his head with basically a sawing motion in the soft dirt, then put both the head and body in a bucket till this morning and put them in a burn barrel. My question is can the venom still be lethal in the dirt where my grandkids play? Can I remove the dirt where the head was or wash it down with bleach? Please reply as soon as possible and thank you.

    • I understand your concerns regarding the safety of your grandkids. Most folks who are bitten by snakes are trying to kill or harm it, but fortunately you were cautious. Although it’s likely that no venom was released in the soil around the swing set, it wouldn’t hurt to water thoroughly to dilute any of the small quantity if present. Venom on the skin will rarely cause any health issues, but if there’s a cut or open sore on the body, that’ll be the most likely spot to cause concern. Usually, a rattlesnake will not release/inject venom until it bites the prey or threat. They prefer to use the venom primarily for acquiring food and don’t like to use that “tool” for other purposes. Unless the snake was actively trying to strike and bite in your direction I would think there could be no venom on the ground to be a worry. But, I’m always cautious around any wild animal and as mentioned earlier, it certainty wouldn’t hurt to irrigate the area where the snake was located. Not sure where you live, but this is the time of year that many species of snakes are moving around either looking for a mate or even to head back to a den for the upcoming winter. It all depends on where you are located, but always keep an eye out where you are walking. Good luck and thanks for an important question.

  7. I just completed a most informative review of your answers. The importance of knowing about crystallized venom needs to be spread. Last week, a family member working cattle in the TX Hill country had to dispatch a 58 inch diamondback rattler. The head was buried under a pile of stones. Would barrel burning have assured destruction of the venom and prevented formation of crystals?

    • Hello John,

      While I’m not totally sure, I would think the heat created by burning a snake carcass could destroy the toxicity of the venom. A snake’s skull is quite fragile and most of the bones would be consumed by the fire. However, as in most animals, the fangs could survive causing concern of puncture if handled. I still feel that the chemicals in the venom could most likely be destroyed but I would exercise caution if I were to go thru the ashes of the fire. There could be as many as a half dozen fangs in the residue due to the growth of new fangs which follow the main fangs which are used as a replacement in the event of breakage. I definitely would not go poking thru the remains of the fire. Getting punctured by the fangs could result in a number of issues beyond those of venom, such as bacteria contact. I’d recommend to just avoid any contact!

      Good, well thought out question. Thanks!


  8. Thanks for your answer to my question, Chuck. Very wise advice to avoid snake fang contact in every scenario whether venom remnants or potential infection.

  9. My son inlaw cut the head off a copperhead and threw just out the yard. My question is can still inject vemon if some one step on head it been over 72 hours.but my grandkids play in the yard i dont want them to come in contact with it

    • Hello Danny,

      Absolutely, the venom in a dead snake’s head continues to be a danger whether it’s still liquid or dry, crystallized form. The fangs are extremely sharp and would have no trouble piercing a person’s skin. The venom could remain a danger for an extended length of time, so it would be a good idea to dispose of it safely. Great care should be used in disposing both for the person disposing and the possibility of a trash hauler coming in contact with the head. Another option would be to bury the head at least a foot deep in the ground. As we’ve said many times, most folks bitten by snakes comes as a result of attempting to harm, kill or otherwise mis-handle the animal.
      Thanks for contacting us.

  10. Hey Chuck,
    Thanks for taking the time to respond to each of us. I have read many articles about handling dead snakes and they usually only cover freshly killed specimens (up to 48-72 hours), I usually have to get into the comment section (where available) before I find anything about crystallized venom, it makes no sense why this isn’t mentioned more often, because many people just toss them in the bushes, yard or trash bin without any thought. Thank you for addressing this very important point!!!

    William in Pensacola

    • William,

      Thanks for your great comments. We keep trying to spread the word about some of our favorite critters. As an older FL boy,now in the AZ desert, I appreciate what you’re doing on the Panhandle as well!

  11. If you remove the head from a rattlesnake or copperhead recently killed would bleach, muriatic acid, or some other chemical be powerful enough to remove the tissue and venom from the head. I’d like to put the heads in a large glass jar but need the correct chemical to destroy the tissue and everything else.

    • Not being experienced in the area of your question, I’d suggest you check out this link: https://www.taxidermy.net/threads/431386/

      I do know that some of the chemicals you mentioned might damage the very fragile bones in the skull. So, please refer to the above link which seems to adequately provide some answers to your question. And at any rate, exercise extreme caution in the handling of the carcass since it is a venomous animal and even though dead, there is danger of accidentally becoming envenomated.

      Thanks for asking!


      • I just want to eliminate the chance that someone could be hurt so therefore I came up with carefully destroying the head in a chemical. The body can go to wild animals. I will read that info. Thanks.

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